Water solubility in glass melts at 1200°C [1]


Few water solubility data in glass melts are available in the literature for statistical analysis, mostly at temperatures around 1200°C: Rapp and McGinnis et al. [2, 3, 4], Franz and Scholze [5], and McGinnis et al. [6, 7]. Early publications by Tomlinson [8], Kurkjian et al. [9], and Garbe [10] were not considered in this model calculation due to inconsistencies, e.g. a minimum in the water solubility curve with increasing Na2O concentration. The data by Franz and Scholze reported for 1250°C to 1480°C were extrapolated to 1200°C. The modeling result is shown in the Table below, and details of the calculation are included in a water solubility calculator. The model equation follows the additivity principle: Water solubility in ppm by weight = Constant + Sum(Glass component concentrations in mol% x Factors).

Franz and Scholze [5], Rapp [2, 3], and McGinnis et al. [4] found that the water solubility increases with increasing temperature.


Water solubility model for silicate glasses at 1200°C under atmospheric pressure



Coefficients based on mol% for H2O solubility in ppm by weight at 1200°C




















Prediction error in ppm weight*, depending on composition


Approximate concentration limits in mol% for silicate glass compositions after glass melting: SiO2: 57-82, B2O3: 0-6, Al2O3: 0-14, MgO: 0-10, CaO: 0-20, SrO: 0-10, BaO: 0-10, Li2O 0-38:, Na2O: 0-38, K2O: 0-38, TiO2: 0-0.4, F: 0-0.7, Fe total as Fe2O3: 0-0.7

*Exact prediction errors can be determined using a water solubility calculator.

The excluded insignificant factors are not mentioned.



[1] A. Fluegel, D. A. Earl, A. K. Varshneya, D. Oksoy: "Statistical analysis of viscosity, electrical resistivity, and further glass melt properties", Chapter 9 in: "High temperature glass melt property database for process modeling"; Eds.: Thomas P. Seward III and Terese Vascott; The American Ceramic Society, Westerville, Ohio, 2005, ISBN 1-57498-225-7

[2] D. B. Rapp: "Water solubility and diffusion in glassforming melts"; Masters Thesis, Alfred University, New York, 2001

[3] D. B. Rapp, J. E. Shelby: "Water diffusion and solubility in soda-lime-silica melts"; Phys. Chem. Glasses, vol. 44, no. 6, 2003, p 393-400

[4] P. B. McGinnis, M. G. Mesko, D. B. Rapp, J. E. Shelby: "Water diffusion and solubility in glasses and melts of float, container, and other commercial compositions"; Ceramic Transactions, vol. 141, The American Ceramic Society, 2004, p 127-134

[5] H. Franz, H. Scholze: "Die Loeslichkeit von H2O-Dampf in Glasschmelzen verschiedener Basizitaet (Solubility of H2O in glass melts of various basicity)"; Glastechn. Ber., vol. 36, 1963, p 347-356 (in German)

[6] P. B. McGinnis: "The diffusion kinetics of water in glasses and glass-forming melts"; Doctoral Thesis, Alfred University, New York, 1994

[7] P. B. McGinnis, J. E. Shelby: "Diffusion of water in float glass melts"; J. Non-Cryst-Solids, 177 (1994), 381-388

[8] J. W. Tomlinson: "A note on the solubility of water in a molten sodium silicate"; J. Soc. Glass Technol., vol. 40, 1956, p 25T-31T

[9] C. R. Kurkjian, L. E. Russell: "Solubility of water in molten silicates"; J. Soc. Glass Technol., vol. 42, 1958, p 130T-144T

[10] S. Garbe: "Zur Wasserabgabe von Natriumsilikatglaesern (Water release of silicate glasses)"; Glastech. Ber., vol. 34, 1961, p 413-417 (in German)